The forum thread you linked to would apply in this case.
Looking at the screenshot, the image URL is missing in the
srcset. It also unlikely to do anything with the Genesis Framework.
Look in the following folder:
In that folder there should be a folder for each entry which has an image. Within those folders, there should be images.
Can you check to see if they are there?
Go to the Connections : Settings admin page and click the Advanced tab. Enable the Debugging option. And then upload an image to an entry. Can you paste the result here?