The source of the issue is the ‘Autolink URI” plugin. It is converting the src image link to a “clickable” link which break the image source. It seems to ignore the images which are wrapped in links such as the logos are in your directory.
They suggest their External Links plugin. But that has not been updated in awhile and a quick glance at the support forums seems to be unsupported and causing little issues for others.
Best solution seems to be to deactivate the plugin.
Hope this helps!