Excerpt Plus can be configured to display the logo rather than the photo. Use this shortcode:
This way you will not have to reupload images.
Now, for those that you did reupload, those should have displayed. The fix, really without more info, that is impossible to know. I know local dev installs can be problems because they rarely match actual production configurations. A few things to check…
- Are there any browser error reported in the browser console?
- Are there any errors shown when uploading an image to an entry.
- Are there any errors in the PHP error log?
- Is the GD library installed on you local dev instance?